Sony Arouje

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Archive for the ‘Arduino’ Category

Connect Arduino to external EEPROM

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Arduino has a tiny built in hard drive called EEPROM, in this area we can write data that should be available after power cycles. Unfortunately the size of this built in EEPROM is 512 byte for Atmega168 and 1kb for Atmega328. If our application is dealing with very small amount of data to persist then built in EEPROM is a good choice.

In some scenarios we might need to keep some logging info or any kind of data that needs more than 1kb then we need to go for external EEPROM. For this post I am using 24LC256, it can store 256kb of data. We can connect upto 8 ICs to a single Arduino by changing the voltage in A0, A1 and A2 pins.

clip_image001

 

Connection to Arduino

connection_bb

 

Here I connect A0 to A2 to GND and that gives me an address of 0x57.

VSS to GND, VCC to 5v, WP to GND, SCL to A5, SDA to A4

High on WP will disable writing, in my scenario I need to write, so I connect to GND.

 

Source Code

To deal with EEPROM reading and writing, I used a library called Extended Database Library (EDB). I also used the samples provided along with EDB but with some modifications.

 

#include <EDB.h> #include <Wire.h> #define disk 0x50 #define TABLE_SIZE 131072 // 1 device struct LogEvent { int id; int temperature; } logEvent; void writer(unsigned long address, byte data) { Wire.beginTransmission(disk); Wire.write((int)(address>>8)); Wire.write((int)(address & 0xFF)); Wire.write(data); Wire.endTransmission(); delay(5); } byte reader(unsigned long address) { byte rdata = 0xFF; Wire.beginTransmission(disk); Wire.write((int)(address>>8)); Wire.write((int)(address & 0xFF)); Wire.endTransmission(); Wire.requestFrom(disk,1); if(Wire.available()) rdata = Wire.read(); return rdata; } EDB db(&writer, &reader); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); Wire.begin(); randomSeed(analogRead(0)); Serial.println("Creating db..."); EDB_Status result = db.create(2, TABLE_SIZE, (unsigned int)sizeof(logEvent)); if (result != EDB_OK) printError(result); Serial.println("Created db..."); createRecord(1); selectAll(); } void loop() { // put your main code here, to run repeatedly: } void createRecord(int recno) { Serial.println("Creating Records..."); logEvent.id = 1; logEvent.temperature = random(1, 125); EDB_Status result = db.insertRec(recno, EDB_REC logEvent); if (result != EDB_OK) printError(result); Serial.println("DONE"); } void selectAll() { for (int recno = 1; recno <= db.count(); recno++) { EDB_Status result = db.readRec(recno, EDB_REC logEvent); if (result == EDB_OK) { Serial.print("Recno: "); Serial.print(recno); Serial.print(" ID: "); Serial.print(logEvent.id); Serial.print(" Temp: "); Serial.println(logEvent.temperature); } else printError(result); } } void deleteAll() { Serial.print("Truncating table..."); db.clear(); Serial.println("DONE"); } void printError(EDB_Status err) { Serial.print("ERROR: "); switch (err) { case EDB_OUT_OF_RANGE: Serial.println("Recno out of range"); break; case EDB_TABLE_FULL: Serial.println("Table full"); break; case EDB_OK: default: Serial.println("OK"); break; } }

 

 

Happy coding…

Written by Sony Arouje

April 14, 2016 at 1:39 am

Posted in Arduino

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MQTT Communication with Arduino using ESP8266 ESP-01

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I was doing some experiments with Arduino connected to WiFi using ESP8266 module. The priority of my experiment was to establish MQTT communication with my local MQTT server and Arduino. I tried so many Arduino libraries for ESP8266 but none of them are compatible with PubSubClient, a good MQTT library for Arduino. Today I come across a library called WiFiEsp, it has similar footprints of Arduino WiFi library, and it can work with PubSubClient. This post deals with how to utilize both PubSubClient and WifiEsp libraries to establish MQTT communication with an MQTT server.

Connecting ESP8266 to Arduino

  • I powered ESP8266 directly from my Arduino’s 5V. You shouldn’t do that, it may damage the wifi module as it deals with 3.3v. This wifi module need more current than Arduino’s 3.3v pin can provide, so connecting Arduino 3.3v to Wifi module will not work. A good option is to connect Arduino 5v to a 3.3v voltage regulator like LM1117/LD117 and power the wifi module from LM*. Connect both VCC and CH_PD pin of ESP to 3.3v power.
  • ESP8266 GND to Arduino GND. If powering ESP externally then Arduino and ESP should have a common GND.
  • ESP8266 TXD to Arduino RXD, in the below sketch I used Softserial and connected to D2.
  • ESP8266 RXD to Arduino TXD. Arduino Pin supply 5v and can damage the wifi module. So I used two resistors to create a voltage divider (Google search and you will get it). In the below sketch I used Softserial and connected to D3.

 

Arduino Sketch

I decided to write a sketch to see the MQTT in action. Below sketch is just a combination of samples provided in WifiEsp and Pubsubclient. I just combined both sample codes to verify the communication, so nothing special. The end result is, Arduino could establish MQTT connection to my MQTT server and send and receive messages for subscribed topics.

 

#include <WiFiEsp.h> #include <WiFiEspClient.h> #include <WiFiEspUdp.h> #include "SoftwareSerial.h" #include <PubSubClient.h> IPAddress server(10, 0, 0, 2); char ssid[] = "XYZ"; // your network SSID (name) char pass[] = "pwd"; // your network password int status = WL_IDLE_STATUS; // the Wifi radio's status // Initialize the Ethernet client object WiFiEspClient espClient; PubSubClient client(espClient); SoftwareSerial soft(2,3); // RX, TX void setup() { // initialize serial for debugging Serial.begin(9600); // initialize serial for ESP module soft.begin(9600); // initialize ESP module WiFi.init(&soft); // check for the presence of the shield if (WiFi.status() == WL_NO_SHIELD) { Serial.println("WiFi shield not present"); // don't continue while (true); } // attempt to connect to WiFi network while ( status != WL_CONNECTED) { Serial.print("Attempting to connect to WPA SSID: "); Serial.println(ssid); // Connect to WPA/WPA2 network status = WiFi.begin(ssid, pass); } // you're connected now, so print out the data Serial.println("You're connected to the network"); //connect to MQTT server client.setServer(server, 1883); client.setCallback(callback); } //print any message received for subscribed topic void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) { Serial.print("Message arrived ["); Serial.print(topic); Serial.print("] "); for (int i=0;i<length;i++) { Serial.print((char)payload[i]); } Serial.println(); } void loop() { // put your main code here, to run repeatedly: if (!client.connected()) { reconnect(); } client.loop(); } void reconnect() { // Loop until we're reconnected while (!client.connected()) { Serial.print("Attempting MQTT connection..."); // Attempt to connect, just a name to identify the client if (client.connect("arduinoClient")) { Serial.println("connected"); // Once connected, publish an announcement... client.publish("command","hello world"); // ... and resubscribe client.subscribe("presence"); } else { Serial.print("failed, rc="); Serial.print(client.state()); Serial.println(" try again in 5 seconds"); // Wait 5 seconds before retrying delay(5000); } } }

 

 

For testing MQTT communication, I wrote a Server and a Client couple of months ago, both are node js apps and can run in my development machine. Server uses Mosca and Client uses MQTT module.

Below is the code for Server and Client.

 

Server

var mosca = require('mosca'); var ascoltatore = { //using ascoltatore type: 'mongo', url: 'mongodb://localhost:27017/mqtt', pubsubCollection: 'ascoltatori', mongo: {} }; var moscaSettings = { port: 1883, backend: ascoltatore, persistence: { factory: mosca.persistence.Mongo, url: 'mongodb://localhost:27017/mqtt' } }; var server = new mosca.Server(moscaSettings); server.on('ready', setup); server.on('clientConnected', function (client) { console.log('client connected', client.id); }); // fired when a message is received server.on('published', function (packet, client) { console.log('Published', packet.payload); }); // fired when the mqtt server is ready function setup() { console.log('Mosca server is up and running'); }

As you can see, server uses Mongodb to persist the client connection, run a mongodb instance before running MQTT server.

Client

var mqtt = require('mqtt'); var client = mqtt.connect('mqtt://10.0.0.2', {clientId:'nodeapp'}); client.on('connect', function () { client.subscribe('command'); client.publish('presence', 'Hello mqtt'); }); client.on('message', function (topic, message) { console.log('from mqtt ' + message.toString()); });

Happy coding…

Written by Sony Arouje

March 15, 2016 at 5:35 pm

Posted in Arduino

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Bluetooth Communication with Arduino

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I am in the process of redesigning my Raspberry Pi based Aeroponic controller, in my new system I am using Arduino. This time I decided to use Bluetooth instead of WiFi to communicate between my mobile app and Arduino controller. Later I will write a different post explaining about the new design. In this post I will explain how to communicate to Arduino via Bluetooth.

 

Arduino Bluetooth connection

I bought a HC-05 Bluetooth module from Ebay, it’s a very low cost module. The connection is pretty simple. See the connection below. I am using Arduno Nano in my new design.

connection_v2_bb

 

Connection Details

  • Nano VCC to BT VCC
  • Nano GND to BT GND
  • Nano RXD to BT TXD
  • Nano TXD to BT RXD

In my sketch I used Softserial and I assign D2 and D3 as RXD and TXD respectively.

I haven’t used the EN and KEY pin in the Bluetooth module. You might want to use EN pin, if you want to enter into AT mode to issue any commands to BT module.

Arduino Sketch

#include <SoftwareSerial.h> SoftwareSerial soft(2,3);// RX, TX void setup() { soft.begin(9600); Serial.begin(9600); } void loop() { if(soft.available()){ String serialData = soft.readString(); Serial.println(serialData); //echo bluetooth data to serial writeAck(); } } void writeAck(){ uint8_t payload[]="ACK|0|\n"; soft.write(payload,sizeof(payload)); }

 

It’s a very simple sketch to receive the data from Bluetooth module and echo to Serial, also send and Acknowledgment back to the caller.

You can test the program by issuing some text from Hyperterminal or any other similar app. I wrote an Android app to issue command via Mobile bluetooth.

 

Happy coding…

Written by Sony Arouje

March 4, 2016 at 1:26 pm

Posted in Arduino

Tagged with , ,

Farm Automation system based on Arduino and Raspberrypi

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Last two weeks, in my free time, I was working on a system to automate  Green house or an open field. The system designed using Arduino Nano and Raspberry Pi. The Arduino is used to read sensors and control devices and the Raspberry pi is the brain that decides what to do when an event detected by Arduino. All the systems communicates wirelessly via XBee.

In normal scenario in a farm we have to

  • Switch on the drip irrigation pump when the soil humidity is low.
  • Switch off when the soil is wet.
  • Switch on the Main motor that connects to a water source when the reservoir level goes down.
  • Switch off the main motor when the reservoir is full.
  • If it’s a Green house then monitor the humidity and control devices to increase or decrease the humidity. Also need to control temperature.

 

Below is a very ugly drawing I could come up : ), to explain the system.

image

 

Arduino based nodes

The nodes are connected to different Sensors like Soil Humidity, Temperature, Air Humidity, etc. Also the nodes can also switch on/Off drip irrigation motor, switch on/off Reservoir’s Solenoid valves, or control any hardware needed in the field.

Raspberry pi Brain

I developed this central/brain system in Nodejs. The system is very much generic and run based on configurations. So nothing is hardcoded. The XBee connected to the pi act as the coordinator and receive periodic sensor inputs from Ardunio connected in the field. This system can issue command to control devices based on the sensor inputs.

 

Let’s go through some of the scenarios to see how the system works.

Watering the plants: From the above picture you can see, there are 5 Arduino’s in the field sensing different parameters. For now lets think that they all reads the soil humidity. Say soil humidity value range from 0 to 100, where 0 is dry and 100 is fully wet. We need to switch on the drip irrigation motor when any of the sensor value is less than 20. Once all the sensor give a humidity value greater than 90 we need to switch off the motor.

As you can see the system need to take action based on the values coming from the sensor. Depending upon the crops these values can be changed. That’s where the Central Node js system comes into play.

In the central system, we can group the Sensor nodes and configure the triggering points. Also we can configure what to do when the triggering points reach. For e.g. in the above case we can say when the soil humidity of any sensor goes below 20, then send the Motor switch on command to the node sitting next to the Reservoir motor. To switch off the motor, the system needs approval from all the sensors, that means the motor will get switched off if all the nodes reported value is greater than 90.

Failover: What happens when a sensor node dies without sending soil humidity greater than 90 value, will the motor run whole day? No, the central system can be configured for that too, while configuring we can set up a timeout period. If the central system is not receiving high water level after a configured time, it automatically sends a Switch off command to the desired Arduino node to switch off the motor.

Filling Reservoir: From the above diagram, we can see there are two reservoirs and one Main motor. The main motor need to switch on to fill the Reservoir. Each reservoir is equipped with sensors to detect the High and Low water level. Also each water input is equipped with a solenoid valve. If the reservoir is high then the solenoid valve will close the input thus protect the reservoir from overflowing. Once all the reservoir get filled the system will switch off the Main motor before closing the last solenoid, other wise the pressure increase and can damage the Main motor.

The Arduino node will send a Water low when the water go down below a desired level. Then the central system will open the Solenoid before switching on the Main motor. The valve will open only for the reservoir where the water is low, rest all the valves will be closed.

If more than one Reservoir’s water is low then those valves will be open and the main pump will work until all the reservoir’s are filled. For e.g. say Reservoir A and B’s water level is low then both the valves will be open and switch on the main pump. A get filled and B is still not full then A’s valve will get closed. Once B is full the system will send Main pump switch off command then sends the command to close B’s valve.

 

System design

All the above scenarios are based on certain rules and all these rules are configurable. The central system is not aware of any rules. Based on the fields condition we need to configure it.

 

User can also see the activities in the farm via a dashboard. I haven’t designed any Dashboard UI yet.

 

Happy farming…

Written by Sony Arouje

February 17, 2016 at 6:16 pm

Arduino Scheduler: sleep x time then run for y time

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Recent days I was playing with my Arduino uno to perform several tasks. One task is something like, say sleep for 10 mins and switch on a pin for 3 mins then sleep for 10 mins, and the cycle continues. I evaluated several libraries but most of them run a task based on an interval. For e.g. toggle pin 13 every 1 minute, it’s more like a delay. But what I wanted was, delay for 2 minutes then give a HIGH voltage to pin 13 for 1 minute then write LOW to pin 13 and again sleep for 10mins.

My search leads nothing, so I decided to write a quick and dirty Scheduler for me. I came up with a library after spending 3 hours yesterday night. I didn’t had much programming experience in C++, so I had to spend some time to understand how things work in C++ world. I also use the Timer library as a reference.

Let’s see the sketch that use my library.

#include "TaskScheduler.h" TaskScheduler t1; TaskScheduler t2; TaskScheduler t3; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); pinMode(13, OUTPUT); pinMode(12, OUTPUT); t1.sleepThenToggle(4000,1000,13,HIGH); t2.every(2000,readSensor); t3.write(12,HIGH,4000); } void readSensor(){ Serial.println("Reading sensors..."); } void loop() { t1.update(); t2.update(); t3.update(); }

Here I declared three tasks, t1, t2 and t3.

Task t1 is a toggle pin task with sleep, in the sample code above, Arduino sleeps for 4000ms then switch on pin 13 for 1000ms and the cycle continues.

  • sleepThenToggle(<sleep time>,<keep the pin state for x ms>,<pin number>,<starting state of the pin>);

Task t2 is a callback task, in the above case, the function readSensor will get called every 2000ms.

  • every(<sleeptime>,<callback>);

Task t3 is a digitalWrite with timeout. One scenario we can use that functionality is, say the switching on/off of a pin is based on an external command, it might be coming from a Raspberry pi. In a situation if the Pi went down with some reason after issuing a switch on command then Arduino will keep the Pin on till a reset. These scenarios, we can use write, in the above code, the pin 12 will be HIGH for 4000ms, after that it will get switched off automatically.

  • t3.write(<pin number>,<starting state of the pin>,<timeout period>);

Make sure to call the ‘update()’ in the loop, other wise no action will be taken.

For the curious minds visit my Gitrepo to see the code.

 

Happy coding…

Written by Sony Arouje

January 28, 2016 at 1:25 pm

Posted in Arduino

Tagged with ,

Communication between Raspberry Pi and Arduino using XBee

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Recently I was doing some experiments to establish a wireless communication between a Raspberry pi and Arduino. To establish wireless communication I used XBee Pro Series 2 from Digi International. The idea behind this test setup is to test, whether I can control devices like motor or read different sensors remotely.

One of the biggest advantage of using XBee is, you can find a lot of tutorials and libraries for any kind of system and programming languages. For this test app, I used Node js in RPi and C in Arduino.

Test Setup

XBee: I configured two xbee, one as Coordinator and another as Router. Both in API mode 2 (AP =2). I used XCTU to configure both the device. Only reason to choose API 2 is because the Arduino library I used only support API mode 2.

Raspberry pi: connected Coordinator XBee to one of my RPi. You can see more about the connection in one of my earlier post.

Arduino Uno: connected the Router xbee to one of my Arduino. The connection is pretty simple as below.

  • XBee Rx –> Arduino Tx
  • XBee Tx -> Arduino Rx
  • XBee 3.3v-> Arduino 3.3v
  • XBee Gnd –>Arduino Gnd

 

Raspberry Pi Node js code

Modules used

  • xbee-api: npm install xbee-api
  • serialport: npm install serialport

 

var util = require('util'); var SerialPort = require('serialport').SerialPort; var xbee_api = require('xbee-api'); var C = xbee_api.constants; var xbeeAPI = new xbee_api.XBeeAPI({ api_mode: 2 }); var serialport = new SerialPort("/dev/ttyAMA0", { baudrate: 9600, parser: xbeeAPI.rawParser() }); var frame_obj = { type: 0x10, id: 0x01, destination64: "0013A200407A25AB", broadcastRadius: 0x00, options: 0x00, data: "MTON" }; serialport.on("open", function () { serialport.write(xbeeAPI.buildFrame(frame_obj)); console.log('Sent to serial port.'); }); // All frames parsed by the XBee will be emitted here xbeeAPI.on("frame_object", function (frame) { console.log(">>", frame); if(frame.data!== undefined) console.log(frame.data.toString('utf8')); });

 

 

Arduino Sketch

This sketch uses a XBee library, to add the library, goto Sketch->Include Library->Manage Libraries. From the window search for XBee and install the library. I am using Arduino IDE 1.6.7.

I use SoftwareSerial to establish serial communication with XBee, Pin 2 is Arduino Rx and Pin 3 is Arduino Tx.

 

#include <Printers.h> #include <XBee.h> #include <SoftwareSerial.h> unsigned long previousMillis = 0; const long interval = 4000; // the interval in mS XBee xbee = XBee(); // XBee's DOUT (TX) is connected to pin 2 (Arduino's Software RX) // XBee's DIN (RX) is connected to pin 3 (Arduino's Software TX) SoftwareSerial soft(2,3);// RX, TX Rx16Response rx16 = Rx16Response(); ZBRxResponse rx = ZBRxResponse(); XBeeAddress64 addr64 = XBeeAddress64(0x0013a200,0x407a25b5); char Buffer[128]; char RecBuffer[200]; void setup() { // put your setup code here, to run once: soft.begin(9600); Serial.begin(9600); xbee.setSerial(soft); } void print8Bits(byte c){ uint8_t nibble = (c >> 4); if (nibble <= 9) Serial.write(nibble + 0x30); else Serial.write(nibble + 0x37); nibble = (uint8_t) (c & 0x0F); if (nibble <= 9) Serial.write(nibble + 0x30); else Serial.write(nibble + 0x37); } void print32Bits(uint32_t dw){ print16Bits(dw >> 16); print16Bits(dw & 0xFFFF); } void print16Bits(uint16_t w){ print8Bits(w >> 8); print8Bits(w & 0x00FF); } void loop() { // put your main code here, to run repeatedly: xbee.readPacket(); if (xbee.getResponse().isAvailable()) { if (xbee.getResponse().getApiId() == ZB_RX_RESPONSE) { xbee.getResponse().getZBRxResponse(rx); if (rx.getOption() == ZB_PACKET_ACKNOWLEDGED) { // the sender got an ACK Serial.println("got ACK"); } else { // we got it (obviously) but sender didn't get an ACK Serial.println("not got ACK"); } Serial.print("Got an rx packet from: "); XBeeAddress64 senderLongAddress = rx.getRemoteAddress64(); print32Bits(senderLongAddress.getMsb()); Serial.print(" "); print32Bits(senderLongAddress.getLsb()); Serial.println(' '); // this is the actual data you sent Serial.println("Received Data: "); for (int i = 0; i < rx.getDataLength(); i++) { print8Bits(rx.getData()[i]); Serial.print(' '); } //Received data as string to serial Serial.println(' '); Serial.println("In string format"); for (int i = 0; i < rx.getDataLength(); i++) { if (iscntrl(rx.getData()[i])) RecBuffer[i] =' '; else RecBuffer[i]=rx.getData()[i]; } Serial.println(RecBuffer); String myString = String((char *)RecBuffer); if(myString=="MTON"){ Serial.println("Switching on Motor"); } else if(myString=="MTOFF"){ Serial.println("Switching off Motor"); } } //clear the char array, other wise data remains in the //buffer and creates unwanted results. memset(&RecBuffer[0], 0, sizeof(RecBuffer)); memset(&Buffer[0], 0, sizeof(Buffer)); } //Send a packet every 4 sec. unsigned long currentMillis = millis(); if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) { // save the last time you blinked the LED previousMillis = currentMillis; strcpy(Buffer,"RSLOW"); uint8_t payload[20]= "RSLOW"; // ZBTxRequest zbtx = ZBTxRequest(addr64,(uint8_t *)Buffer,sizeof(Buffer)); ZBTxRequest zbtx = ZBTxRequest(addr64,payload,sizeof(payload)); xbee.send(zbtx); } }

 

Burn the sketch to Arduino.

Testing

Run node js code in RPi and you start receiving the frames from Arduino.

 

 

Happy coding….

Written by Sony Arouje

January 21, 2016 at 12:06 am

RS485 Communication Protocol with Micro Controllers and Raspberry pi

with 8 comments

We are in the age of connected devices, devices could talk each other either via RF or wired. In one of my post I explained about Radio Frequency communication using Xbee. In this post lets see how devices can talk each other via wired network. One of the advantage of Wired network is, it is cost effective compare to buying an XBee modules like Xbee pro. I personally prefer Wireless communication as it’s hassle free, just place the devices where ever we need.

In my previous post I explained how to Bootload Atmega16A and program it using Arduino. Next step is to establish the communication between the Micro controllers and Raspberry pi. In this case my Raspberry Pi is acting as the central hub that talk to other controllers and collect data or issue command to do some job.

RS 485 Protocol

I better leave it to Wikipedia to give a detailed explanation of the protocol. In brief using RS485, devices can communicate Full duplex or Half duplex. I used a Half duplex communication. So it’s a protocol, how do we implement the protocol in our hardware, there is a chip Max485 from Maxim. This chip can establish a half duplex communication.

Max485 Pin configuration

Max 485 is a 8 pin chip as shown below. It’s a DIP chip and SMD have different pin layout.

image

Image from Maxim site

Pin 1 – RO: It’s the Data-In pin, devices can read data from the bus using this pin. Rx pin of the Micro controllers should connect to this pin.

RE and DE: Set this pin to Logical High to transmit any data to the bus. Set this pin to Low to receive data from the bus.

Pin 4 DI: Devices can transmit data via this pin.  This pin should be connected to the Tx pin of the device.

Pin 8 and 5 – VCC and GND: To power the chip, VCC should be 5 volt.

Pin 7 and 6 – A and B: Here we connect the data line. A should connect to the A Pin of the next Max 485 and B with B.

 

Connection Diagram

The below picture will illustrate how to connect all the devices together.

RS485_SerialCommunication_bb 

Image created using Fritzing

As per the diagram, if RPi want to transmit any data. We should set a high voltage on GPIO 18 and issue a serial write. All other devices in the network will be in listening mode and can read data using serial read, if any other device wanted to transmit data, then issue a Logical High to RE DE pin and will get promoted as a master and transmit data via serial write.

Now it’s up to you to program it and do some cool things with it.

Written by Sony Arouje

April 23, 2015 at 11:05 pm

Bootloading Atmega16 with Arduino Uno

with 19 comments

Last two days I was experimenting with Microcontrollers and researching about how to write applications on it. I bought one Atmega16A and decided to use Arduino bootloader. So that I can write programs using Arduino IDE and syntax. This post explains about how to bootload Atmega16. I didn’t had any prior experience with Arduino, I have a uno sitting at my desk for quite a long time but never used it. Last three nights I was learning more about Arduino coding and learning about boards config and other stuffs.

Software Setup for Bootloading

I followed the steps posted by Sudar in his blog, please go through the post before reading further. Here I will write some points I had to do to do to complete the bootloading process.

Arduino IDE version: To run the core created by Sudar, we need the IDE version 1.0.x. I have the latest version 1.6.3. There are some differences in configuring boards.txt from 1.0 to 1.6. I tried to rewrite the boards.txt as per 1.6.* standard but it didn’t like it. So I downloaded the old version 1.0.6 from Arduino website. If you have 1.6.* already installed then better download the zip file and extract to a folder. That way you can use 1.6 and 1.0 in same machine.

Adding Boards and Variants: Adding boards to the sketch book folder didn’t work for me, may be I didn’t get it clearly. So I did the below steps.

  1. Go to the Arduino’s hardware folder, <<IDE install location of IDE>>/hardware/arduino/ and open boards.txt.
  2. Copy the contents of Atmega16 boards and pasted to the boards.txt opened in Step 1.
  3. Create a new folder named mega16 under <<IDE install location>>/hardware/arduino/variants and paste the “pins_arduino.h” created for Atmega16.
  4. Open Arduino IDE 1.0.* and goto Tools->Boards and you should see as shown belowarduino_ide_v1.0.6If if you can see the new board under Boards menu as shown above then we successfully setup the software environment for bootloading.
  5. Goto File->Examples->ArduinoISP, it will open a new window with ArduinoISP sketch. Before uploading the sketch make sure you have selected Arduino Uno in Tools->Boards->Arduino Uno. Now upload the sketch to your Uno. Now we setup our Uno as a programmer.

Hardware Setup for Bootloading

Here again I followed the pin connection detailed in Sudar’s post. Please follow exactly the way mentioned in the post. Also don’t forget to connect the capacitor between Reset and GND of Arduino.

Note: If you try to upload any sketch to Arduino Uno when the Capacitor is connected, IDE will throw errors. So before doing any thing with your Arduino remove the Capacitor.

Bootloading

Follow the below steps to burn the bootloader

  1. We have to set our Arduino Uno as an ISP. To do that go to Tools->Programmer and select “Arduino as ISP”
  2. Set the bootloader from Tools->Boards and select the newly added board, ie. Atmega16(internal 8mhz clock).
  3. Now burn the bootloader by selecting “Burn Bootloader” under Tools menu.

If every thing works fine, you could see a success message at the bottom portion of the IDE.

Uploading Sketches to Atmega16

Next we need to upload some sketches to newly bootloaded Atmega16. For this I used the new version of Arduino IDE 1.6.3, If you want you can use IDE 1.0.*. Some how the old IDE is very slow for me, so I decided to use the new version. Skip the below step if you decided to use the old 1.0.* version.

Follow the steps to use the Atmega16 board in new version

  1. Create a new folder under <<Installed location of IDE V1.6.*>>/hardware. You can name the folder anything, I named as Mega16.
  2. Under Mega16 folder create another folder called “avr”.
  3. Inside the avr folder copy the boards.txt and create another folder named variants and copy “pins_arduino.h” inside variants folder.
  4. Open boards.txt and add the line “atmega16-8.upload.tool=arduino:avrdude”

Follow the below steps to upload sketch(Common for all versions of IDE)

  1. Open up the IDE and load Blink from File->Examples->Basic.
  2. Edit the code so that you are writing to a pin of Atmega16, here I write to Digital 6, it’s physical pin 20.
  3. Before uploading the sketch Choose Atmega16(internal 8 Mhz) from Tools->Boards.
  4. Choose “Upload using Programmer” from File menu.

Just connect a LED with a Resistor to Physical pin 20 of Atmega16 and you can see the LED blinking.

 

Now I can write any thing to the Atmega16 and connect to sensors or any thing I wanted to do without Arduino.

Written by Sony Arouje

April 23, 2015 at 1:42 pm

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